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洮南市中世纪福音书取材于绵羊、小牛、鹿……还有山羊?-考古资讯

中世纪福音书取材于绵羊、小牛、鹿……还有山羊?-考古资讯

来源:www.livescience.com
作者:Laura Geggel
翻译:大森墨迹
校对:Amy
整理:大古
链接:
https://www.livescience.com/60111-medieval-gospel-animal-proteins.html

一本古书,但不是文章中的那本。(图片来源:Anton Watman/Shutterstock)
最新的研究显示,中世纪的出版商在制作一版罕见的路加福音书(Gospel of Luke)的内页和封面时使用了五种动物的皮:小牛、两种鹿、绵羊和山羊。此外,研究人员表示,这本12世纪的书的封面上还留有另外一种动物的痕迹:甲虫幼虫很可能把皮质包边蛀出了洞。
研究者告诉《科学现场》(Live Science),他们正在使用不会损害破书页的方法探测其中的蛋白质和DNA,从而发掘出这份手稿中惊人的秘密。
研究中遇到的阻力
像这本路加福音书这样罕见的书籍很难被加以研究韶州人才网 ,因为它太脆弱了,这促使许多图书管理者禁止任何可能损伤手稿或书页的研究。
这项规定对Matthew Collins来说司空见惯,他是英国约克大学(University of York)和哥本哈根大学(University of Copenhagen)的生物化学家。他想从动物皮制成的文稿中取样,从而研究古代人们如何使用畜牧制品。
约克大学Borthwick档案研究院(Borthwick Institute for Archives)的工作人员告诉Collins和约克大学考古系博士后Sarah Fiddyment,“我们不能从任何皮纸文稿中直接取样牧宋,因为这些书籍都是珍贵得如同文化遗产一般。”Fiddyment对《科学现场》说。
但是Fiddyment没有放弃赤炼苍穹。她花了数月时间学习图书馆工作人员如何保存珍贵的皮纸文稿死亡幻想 ,并惊喜地发现了一种全新的不破坏样本的研究方法——涉及到擦除。
通常情况下,图书馆工作人员会使用聚氯乙烯(polyvinyl chloride)轻轻地摩擦皮纸文稿来“干洗”它们。这种方法会从书页上扯下纤维,产生的碎屑通常就被扔掉了。
但Fiddyment意识到这些碎屑包含了关于书籍的珍贵线索。通过分离碎屑中的蛋白质和生物碎片,并使用质谱仪(mass spectrometer)(一种通过质量来确定混合物不同的成分的仪器)来检测他们,研究者可以获悉原稿的所有信息。
“这是Sarah的绝妙主意,”Collins在电子邮件中告诉《科学现场》。“说来奇怪,我觉得我们很期待这次挑战爱上痞子女 顺溜网 。”
不寻常的分析
Fiddyment很快就把这项技术付诸实践剑侠风云录 。一位历史学家在2009年的苏富比(Southeby)拍卖上购买了上文中提到过的路加福音书。对其“尖锐”的字体的分析表明此书完成于公元1120年左右由的英国坎特伯雷圣奥古斯丁修道院(St. Augustine's Abbey in Canterbury)。牛津大学伯德雷恩图书馆(Bodleian Libraries)的手稿管理员Bruce Barker-Benfield告诉《科学》杂志(journal Science)。
为了了解更多关于福音书的信息,历史学家与Collins取得联系。使用Fiddyment的方法,Collins和他的同事发现书的白色皮质封面使用的是英国常见的獐鹿(roe deer)皮。书的系带来自更大型的鹿-英国本土的马鹿(red deer)或者黇鹿(fallow deer),这可能是在1066年诺曼人(Normans)入侵后带来的物种。
书的材料表明可能在獐鹿数量减少的时期,修道院转而用大型鹿来制作书籍。Fiddyment告诉《科学》杂志。应诺曼人的要求,许多修道院开始誊写经文,对动物皮革需求的增加可能对修道院圈养动物造成了“巨大冲击”,英国诺丁汉大学(University of Nottingham)的考古学家Naomi Sykes告诉《科学》杂志。
对每一页的分析显示书稿中颜色较暗的页面使用的是山羊皮章艳敏,这很不寻常,因为通常不那么富裕的书籍制作者才会使用山羊皮纸哈拉湖 。研究者说,可能中世纪的修道士耗尽了他们羊羔的供给,从而使用山羊来维持收支平衡。
修道士们也可以使用绵羊皮来代替,但他们选择让绵羊活到了成年从而可以收获更多的羊毛,Collins告诉《科学》杂志。
研究者发现156页书稿总共使用了8.5张小牛皮、10.5张绵羊皮和半张山羊皮。
“我们之前没有预料到一件文档竟使用了这么多种动物制成,”Fiddyment告诉《科学现场》。“它带来了许多关于手稿制作和牲畜使用的问题。”
研究者同时注意到一个有关笔迹的奇怪细节。洮南市 “事实一直摆在我们眼前,总共有两名主要的抄写员杨嘉雯 ,当第二名抄写员接手后,皮质材料才真正发生了改变,”Collins告诉《科学现场》。“我们并不知道改变是多久后发生的,但不止Bruce (手稿管理员)鉴定出这名抄写员的技巧欠佳,似乎他只够格使用(便宜的)绵羊皮。”
今后,这项新技术可以帮助研究人员打开生物分子数据的宝库,包括关于用来制作皮纸的动物的品种多样性的信息,这反过来可以帮助研究者了解畜牧经济的知识,Fiddyment说。这项技术还可以揭示关于以前曾接触过皮纸文稿的人身上微生物的信息,Fiddyment指出。
Collins表示同意说考古学家对古文稿的关注比以前更多了。“研究档案和馆藏的古文稿比研究动物骨骸容易得多老九门八爷 ,因为在早期对如修道院这样的遗址的发掘过程中,对动物骨骸的记录并不详细,”他说。“目前只发现并妥善发掘出一座生产皮纸的遗址,而我们仍对生产过程一无所知。”

原文
Medieval Gospel Made of Sheep, Calves, Deer ... and Goat?
An ancient book, but not the one described in the article.
Credit: Anton Watman/Shutterstock
During medieval times, bookmakers fashioned the pages and cover of a rare copy of theGospel of Luke out of five different types of animals: calves, two species of deer, sheep and goat汪国真诗集 , according to new research.
In addition, one more type of animal left its mark on the cover of this 12th-century book: Beetle larvae likely chewed holes into the leather binding, the researchers said.
Now, researchers are learning unexpected secrets about the manuscript by noninvasively testing the proteins and DNA on the book's pages, the researchers told Live Science.
Research roadblocks
Rare books — such as this copy of the Gospel of Luke — are difficult to study because they're fragile, prompting many librarians to bar any research that would harm such manuscripts or their pages.
This rule is all too familiar to Matthew Collins, a biochemist at both the University of York in the United Kingdom and the University of Copenhagen. He wanted to sample parchments — documents made from animal skins — as a way to determine how people have managed livestock throughout history.
When Collins and Sarah Fiddyment, a postdoctoral fellow of archaeology at the University of York, approached librarians at the University of York's Borthwick Institute for Archives亚基拉, "we were told that we would not be allowed to physically sample any of the parchment documents, as they are too valuable as cultural-heritage objects德林义肢 ," Fiddyment told Live Science.
But Fiddyment didn't give up. She spent several months learning how librarians conserve rare parchments, and, surprisingly, found a new method that allows scientists to study these specimens without disturbing them — one that involves an eraser.
Typically, librarians"dry clean" parchmentsby gently rubbing a polyvinyl chloride eraser against them. This technique pulls fibers off the page, and the resulting debris is usually thrown away.
But Fiddyment realized this debris held valuable clues about the book. By isolating proteins and other biological fragments within the debris基克的先驱 , and examining them with a mass spectrometer — an instrument that identifies different compounds by their masses — researchers could learn all kinds of information about the manuscripts, she found.
"This was Sarah's brilliant idea," Collins told Live Science in an email. "Oddly enough, I think we relished the challenge."
Rare analysis
It wasn't long before Fiddyment put this technique into action. A historian bought the aforementionedGospel of Lukeat a 2009 Southeby's auction. An analysis of its "prickly" style of script indicated that scribes at St. Augustine's Abbey in Canterbury, in the United Kingdom, created it around A.D. 1120, Bruce Barker-Benfield,泽北荣治 the curator of manuscripts at the Bodleian Libraries at the University of Oxford,told the journal Science.
To learn more about the gospel, the historian contacted Collins. Using Fiddyment's method配享太庙 , Collins and his colleagues learned that the book's white leather cover came from theskin of a roe deer— a common species in the United Kingdom. The book's strap came from a larger deer species — either a native red deer or a fallow deer, an invasive species likely brought from continental Europe after the Normans invaded in 1066.
Perhaps the book's materials exemplify the period when roe deer numbers were falling, prompting monasteries to turn to larger deer to make books, Fiddyment told Science. Many monasteries began scriptoriums at the request of the Normans, and the rising demand for animal skins likely had a "huge impact" on the animals the monasteries raised, Naomi Sykes, a zooarchaeologist at the University of Nottingham in the United Kingdom, told Science.
An analysis of each page revealed that the manuscript's darker-colored sheets were made of goat skin — an unusual choice, because goat parchment was typically used by less affluent bookmakers. Perhaps the medieval monks had exhausted their supplies of calves of lambs, and had turned to goats to make ends meet, the researchers said.
Alternatively, the monks may have had sheep, but decided to let them live to adulthood so they would have more wool to harvest, Collins told Science.
In all, the researchers found that the 156-page manuscript was made from the skin of 8.5 calves, 10.5 sheep and half a goat.
"We did not expect to find such a varied range of animals used in one document," Fiddyment told Live Science. "[It] brings up many questions about manuscript production and availability of livestock."
The researchers also noticed a strange detail about the handwriting. "[It] had beenstaring us in the faceall along, the fact that there were two major scribes and the real change in order of the skins happened when the second scribe takes over the text," Collins told Live Science. "We don't know how long the transfer took, but not only did Bruce [Barker-Benfield] identify the fact that [the scribe] was less skilled, it seems that he had access only to (lower value) sheep skin."
Going forward峰终定律 , the new method may help researchers uncover a vast trove of biomolecular data, including information about the breed diversity of animals whose skins were used in parchment through time, which could, in turn, help researchers learn about livestock economies, Fiddyment said. This technique can also reveal information about the microbiomeof people who touched the parchments over the ages, Fiddyment noted.
Collins agreed姜柔 , saying that archaeologists pay more attention to parchment than they have in the past. "It is much easier to study archives and curated parchment collections than fragments of animal bone, which were often poorly recorded in early excavations of sites, such as monasteries," he said. "Only one parchment production site has ever been recognized andproperly excavated, and we remain remarkably ignorant of production processes.